Hydatidiform mole, also known as molar pregnancy, is a gestational complication that can lead to serious problems for the mother if not treated properly. The hydrated form mole , also known as molar pregnancy , is a gestational complication that occurs in a proportion of 1 in every 2,000 pregnancies in Western countries and is part of a group of pathologies known as Gestational Trophoblastic Diseases ( GFR ). It is a benign condition, but with the potential to become malignant. The hydatidiform mole can be classified into two basic types: the complete (MHC) and partial or incomplete (MHP) types . These forms are differentiated through histopathological and karyotype aspects. In MHC, there is absence of fetus, whereas in MHP the presence of the embryo occurs, which is usually infeasible or presents several malformations. In the MHC , as stated previously, there is no presence of the fetus, the cord and the membranes. Analyzing the karyotype, it is possible to observe that fertilization occurs in a secondary oocyte, which presents a nucleus absent or inactive, by a spermatozoon 23X, which doubled its chromosomes, or by two spermatozoa. There is, in this case, a uniparental, in which all genes have paternal origin. This chromosomal anomaly causes the early loss of the embryo and causes a proliferation of trophoblastic tissue. In 90% of MHC cases, there is a female karyotype.
It is believed that the disease occurs more in women over 40, in adolescents and in those who have already had miscarriage. Early diagnosis is relatively complicated, since imaging tests are not initially accurate and the symptoms are common to other pathologies. The histopathology is still the best method for the diagnosis of hydatidiform mole. After confirmation of the disease, it is necessary to empty the uterine cavity. Emptying is recommended through the vacuum aspiration technique and subsequent curettage to ensure removal of all material. After emptying, it is essential that the patient continues medical follow-up mainly because of the malignant potential of the disease. Weekly dosing of hCG should be done until three consecutive negative results are obtained. Thereafter, the dosages can be made monthly for a period of six months to one year. A new pregnancy is allowed after the assessment of at least six consecutive months of hCG denudation.
Prenatal care is extremely important to ensure the health of the mother and baby, and should be started as soon as the pregnancy is confirmed. The prenatal care is the medical follow-up that every pregnant woman must have in order to maintain the integrity of the health conditions of the mother and the baby. Throughout the pregnancy, laboratory tests are performed to identify and treat diseases that can harm the health of the mother or child. It is important that expectant mothers start having their prenatal care once they have a confirmed pregnancy or before they are three months pregnant. Some tests done during prenatal care are important in detecting problems such as diseases that may affect the child or their development in the uterus. Usually doctors ask for the following tests:
Glucose , to assess if there is diabetes;
Blood group and Rh factor . This examination is very important because it detects the blood incompatibility between mother and baby, which can lead to the death of the fetus;
Anti-HIV , to identify if there is the presence of the AIDS virus in the mother’s blood. If the mother is HIV positive, the doctor will prescribe some medicines that will reduce the chances of the disease being transmitted to the baby;
Screening for syphilis , a disease that can cause malformations in the baby;
Examination to detect toxoplasmosis , because this disease can be transmitted to the fetus, causing malformations;
Fertilization occurs with the penetration of the spermatozoon in the ovum, and the consequent formation of the zygote. The zygote, through the process of mitosis, will be divided until it forms an individual with the same genetic patrimony contained in its initial form. However, throughout development, cells undergo a process of cell differentiation, in which some genes are activated (coordinating cellular functions) and others are deactivated (no longer acting in the body). In this way, the tissues are formed from different types of cells, which, united, make up the organs that form the systems that, finally, complete the organism. Embryonic development (beginning with the first mitotic division of the zygote) can be divided into three consecutive stages: segmentation , gastrulation and organogenesis. The cleavage, or cleavage stage is the stage that ranges from the first division of the zygote to blastocyst formation. As for its development, it can be divided into two phases: the phase and the blastula phase. Cells that form from cell divisions (cleavages) are called blasters. In this phase there is an increase in the number of cells, but the total volume of the embryo almost does not increase, because the cleavages occur very fast. In this way, the embryo is a cluster of cells, and this stage of development is called the morale.
Risks of teas for pregnant women
The risks of teas for pregnant women are many and so it is crucial to talk to doctors about which plants can be used during pregnancy. On a cold day, teas are undoubtedly a great request. However, not all the plants we use to prepare teas are recommended for get pregnant fast women . Next, we’ll talk about some teas that should not be ingested during pregnancy .
→ Tea that should be avoided by pregnant women
Before consuming any tea, it is important to know the components and risks that can cause to health, especially when we talk about pregnant women. The following teas are quite consumed day by day and considered by many to be harmless.
Routine tea : Routine tea is popularly used to trigger menstrual flow and as a soothing, among other functions. However, it also has abortifacient potential in high doses, since it contains substances that increase the motility (ability to perform movements) of the uterus.
Boldotea : Boldo tea, widely used to treat digestive and hepatic problems, should be avoided because it presents a teratogenic risk (risk of causing fetal malformations). The true boldo also presents abortive activity, and the false-boldo causes damages in the pre-implantation period, which can lead to embryonic losses. The mechanism of the false-boldo is a relaxing effect on the mobility of the tuba , directly affecting the transport of the embryo to the uterus and, consequently, its implantation.
Tea gorse : The gorse tea is popularly used for various treatments such as liver and digestive problems, anemia, diarrhea and urinary infections. However, in case of pregnancy, it is not recommended, as it has a proven risk of abortion .
Cinnamon tea: In high doses, it can cause irritation of the mucosa and abnormal presence of blood in the urine. Cinnamon tea is also related to pre-implantation abortions, so it is not recommended in pregnancy. The abortive effect of cinnamon is still much discussed .
Mint tea : Mint tea has great teratogenicity .
Hibiscus tea : Hibiscus tea can facilitate or increase menstrual flow and trigger abortion in pregnant women. It is therefore perceived that we should be careful when consuming any tea during gestation, since many are related to fetal malformations, besides having abortive effects . It is important to emphasize that many women use these teas to cause the interruption of pregnancy, using large doses of these beverages. However, high doses of teas cause harm not only to the fetus, but also to the woman’s body. It is also important to remember that there is not a safe amount to consume the mentioned teas . This is due to the fact that some pregnant women are more sensitive than others to a particular substance, so the toxicity depends on each organism. Caution: Always remember that adequate prenatal care and plenty of information is essential for a healthy and healthy pregnancy.
Post Abortion Syndrome
Abortion consists of terminating the pregnancy, intentionally or unintentionally. This act can be traumatic to the woman, manifesting emotional disturbances, due to the strong feeling of guilt and / or sadness: the post abortion syndrome. Flashbacks related to the act, nightmares, reactions related to the abortion anniversary date or expected date of the child’s birth, suicidal tendencies, difficulty in having contact with children, alcohol and other drug abuse, concentration difficulties and anxiety are some symptoms that can characterize it. On the one hand, there are doctors who claim that the very act of withdrawing a fetus, unnaturally, is already a type of trauma that can trigger, regardless of the patient’s psychiatric history, disorders such as panic syndrome and depression. Others say that unwanted pregnancy itself can cause disruption in both mother and child; and that clandestine abortions leave behind, both physical and psychological.
Statistically speaking, there is research that indicates a predominance of women who suffered / suffer from this type of problem; while others have shown, for example, similar levels of psychic complications between individuals who have undergone abortion and those who have accepted unwanted pregnancies. There are also psychiatric professionals who affirm the existence of psychological due to spontaneous abortion, but which are not characterized as being psychiatric illnesses per se. Thus, we can see that this syndrome, like abortion itself, is highly discussed, with divergent and controversial positions, according to who scores it. Regardless of these points of view, the fact is that prevention against unwanted pregnancy is a much safer procedure than either of these two decisions that have been scored, and that do not compromise the life of a helpless being. Neonatal screening, better known as a “foot test,” is an effective way to detect early metabolic, genetic and infectious diseases that can cause irreparable in the child’s mental and physical development if not treated before onset of symptoms. It is necessary, mainly, because many of the carriers of these diseases are born with normal appearance and, when these are manifested, the picture is irreversible. The test is mandatory by law in our country, and has been offered free of charge in public health units since 1992.
This test is usually done when the baby is two days old, since before this period the results can be influenced by the mother’s metabolism. Ideally, do not exceed the term of one week. It consists of removing a few drops of blood through a small, single hole in the baby’s heel, on a sheet of filter paper. This region of the body is quite rich in blood vessels, making it almost painlessly done. The sample will provide conditions for the screening of diseases such as phenylketonuria, congenital hypothyroidism, sickle cell anemia and cystic fibrosis. In the presence of any of these, specific treatments are done to bypass the problem and improve the health conditions of the baby. The use of hormones, in the case of hyperoidism; or for phenylcenturia, the adoption of a differentiated diet, avoiding foods rich in protein and those with phenylalanine, are examples of therapeutic measures. There is currently a foot test capable of detecting more than 30 diseases, however, it is only available in the private healthcare network.
Artificial insemination consists of a method in which sperm are deposited in the female reproductive tract. Many people confuse artificial insemination with “in vitro” fertilization, but what is the difference between them? In “in vitro” fertilization, the female egg is fertilized by spermatozoa outside the woman’s body and, after being fertilized, implanted in her uterus. In artificial insemination, sperm are introduced into the female’s uterus in order to fertilize the egg, so it is not necessary to remove the eggs from her body. There are two types of artificial insemination: the iintracervical artificial (IC) wherein the sperm is inserted into the cervix; and intrauterine artificial insemination (UI), in which the sperm is inserted into the uterus. In i intracervical artificial, the sperm is injected into the cervix by syringe. This method reproduces how the sperm is deposited by the penis, in the cervix, at the time of ejaculation. In artificial intrauterine insemination , the sperm cells undergo a “treatment”, in which only those that are able to fertilize remain. After that, the sperm are deposited directly into the uterus, after the female undergoes a treatment that induces ovulation.